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ISSN : 1226-9999(Print)
ISSN : 2287-7851(Online)
Korean J. Environ. Biol. Vol.33 No.2 pp.140-147
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11626/KJEB.2015.33.2.140

New Records of One Monogonont and 5 Bdelloid Rotifers from Korea

Min Ok Song*
Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangwon-do 201-702, Korea
Corresponding Author : Min Ok Song, Tel. 033-640-2310, Fax. 033-640-2867, rotisong@gmail.com , minsong@gwnu.ac.kr
May 18, 2015 June 8, 2015 June 9, 2015

Abstract

The rotifers collected from various terrestrial habitats such as mosses, lichens and mushrooms on tree trunks at four different locations in Korea were investigated. Five species and one subspecies belonging to four genera in three families of monogonont and bdelloid rotifers were identified: Adineta cuneata Milne, 1916, Macrotrachela insolita De Koning, 1947, Macrotrachela musculosa Milne, 1886, Macrotrachela nana nana (Bryce, 1912), Mniobia bredensis De Koning, 1947 and Bryceella stylata (Milne, 1886). All these rotifers are new to Korea, and A. cuneata, M. bredensis and B. stylata are new to Asia as well. Here diagnostic characteristics and illustrations are provided for each Korean new record.


초록


    Ministry of Environment
    NIBR No.2014-02-001

    INTRODUCTION

    Since Song and Kim (1989) and Song & Kim (1996a, b) initiated taxonomic studies of Korean monogononts and bdelloids, respectively, 31 monogononts and 70 bdelloids have been reported from Korea so far (Song and Kim 1989; Song 1999, 2014; Song and Jin 2000; Song and Kim 2000; Song and Min 2015). In the present study, we investigated rotifers collected from various terrestrial habitats and identified five species and one subspecies belonging to four genera in three families of monogonont and bdelloid rotifers, all of which are new to the Korean fauna. As a consequence of our findings, the number of Korean bdelloid records is brought to 75 taxa, of which 54 at the species and 21 at the subspecies level. As for monogononts, the number of Korean records is led to 32 taxa, of which 28 at the species and 4 at the subspecies level.

    These 6 new Korean records include two rotifers with poorly known distributions. A. cuneata has been reported only from New Zealand, Australia and North America after its description from South Africa, and B. stylata has been recorded only from Europe and North America before the present study.

    Here diagnostic characteristics and illustrations are provided for each Korean new record. The taxonomy and distribution of each rotifer are discussed as well.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    For the present taxonomic study on Korean rotifers, specimens collected from various terrestrial habitats such as mosses, lichens and mushrooms on tree trunks were investigated. Samples were collected from four locations in Korea from July 4 to Oct. 25, 2014. The detailed habitat information and sampling date of each locality are listed in Table 1. The bdelloids were extracted from soil, mosses and mushrooms according to a previously described method (Song 2014). All of the rotifers were examined and identified in the active state under a light microscope with a magnification of ×400 to ×600. The photography and motion records of living specimens were performed using an Infinity 2 digital camera (Lumenera Corporation, ON, Canada). The photographs and computer-grabbed images of motion records were used for illustrations. Measurements were made by using Photoshop CS3. The specimens were killed with head, foot, and toes extended, by using the boiling water fixation method (Pennak 1978) instead of narcotization. The method of Stemberger (1979) was used for preparation of permanent mounts.Table 1

    The classification scheme is based on Melone and Ricci (1995) for bdelloids, and De Smet (1997) as well as Nogrady and Pourriot (1995) for a monogonont. Iakovenko et al. (2013) was referred to for the scheme of measurements of philodinid rotifers.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Phylum Rotifera Cuvier, 1817 윤형동물문

    Class Eurotatoria De Ridder, 1957 진윤충강

    Subclass Bdelloidea Hudson, 1884 질형아강

    Order Philodinida Melone & Ricci, 1995 선윤충목

    Family Philodinidae Ehrenberg, 1838 선윤충과

    Genus Macrotrachela Milne, 1886 큰관윤충속

    1M acrotrachela insolita De Koning, 1947 (Fig. 1) 별난큰관윤충 (신칭)

    Macrotrachela insolitaDe Koning, 1947, p. 200, Pl. 8, Figs. 33a-e; Donner, 1965, pp. 131-134, Figs. 97h-i, 98.Fig. 1

    Material examined: 4 specimens, Taeback-si, Gangwon-do (mushrooms and mosses on a tree trunk), Aug. 17, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Corona as wide as or slightly wider than cingulum pad. Upper lip arched, bilobed medially and slightly lower than trochal discs. Pharyngeal tube shorter than trophi length. Spurs conical, with sharp-pointed ends, highly divergent; interspace much narrower than spur base width. Teeth 2+1/1+2.

    Measurements: Corona width 42 μm. Collar width (cingulum pad width) 40 μm. Greatest trunk width (in feeding) 74 μm. Trophi length 18 μm.

    Remarks: The present species is very close to M. habita. Despite the many records, the distinction of M. insolita from M. habita is not clear (Donner 1965). The most prominent difference between M. insolita and M. habita is the ratio of corona width to cingulum pad width (collar width). In M. insolita, corona is a little bit wider or as wide as cingulum pad, while in M. habita, corona is much wider than cingulum pad. Donner (1970) recorded some specimens with overlapping characteristics as M. habita-insolita in his report of the Spanish rotifers.

    The Korean specimens were identified as M. insolita because their coronas were as wide as or slightly wider than cingulum pads.

    In their study on the fine morphology of the bdelloid trophi using scanning electron microscopy, Melone et al. (1998) showed that these two species have a difference in the numbers of uncus teeth of proximal group, major teeth and distal group.

    Further genetic studies might be necessary with these two species to make it clear whether these are distinctly separate species or not.

    The present species has been reported from many European countries, the Arctic, the Antarctic, Australia, New Zealand and Taiwan before the present study (Donner 1965; Shiel and Green 1996; Ho 2005). The wide distribution of this species suggests that it is presumably cosmopolitan.

    Habitat: The specimens were collected from mushrooms and mosses on a tree trunk at Taeback-si, Gangwon-do.

    World Distribution: Presumably cosmopolitan.

    Deposition: National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) (KOSPGR0000276140, KOSPIV0000219229, KOSPIV0000219231).

    Identifier: Min Ok Song.

    2M acrotrachela musculosaMilne, 1886 (Fig. 2) 억센큰관윤충 (신칭)

    Macrotrachela musculosaMilne, 1886, pp. 138-139, Pl. II, Fig. 7; Montet, 1915, pp. 287-288, Pl. 10, Figs. 16a-d; Donner, 1965, p. 146, Figs. 95h-j; Donner, 1970b, p. 526, Figs. 8a-b; Donner, 1980, pp. 136-137, Fig. 4.Fig. 2

    Callidina musculosa: Janson, 1893, pp. 64-65, pl. 4, Figs. 52-53.

    Material examined: 2 specimens, Taebaek-si, Gangwon-do (mushroons and mosses on a tree trunk), Aug. 17, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Upper lip bilobed medially and lower than trochal discs; a depression between two lobes narrower than each lobe’s width, and slightly convex or with a tiny projection medially. Corona wider than cingulum pad. Sulcus narrower than pedicel width.

    Measurements: Corona width 50~51 μm. Collar width (cingulum pad width) 43~44 μm. Greatest trunk width (in feeding) 69~73 μm. Trophi length 18 μm.

    Remarks: The general morphology of the Korean specimens conforms to the original description well except that foot and spurs are not granulated. There is a very tiny projection on the median depression between two lobes of the upper lip in the Korean specimens. In Asia, this species was reported from Tibet by Gong (1983) (reviewed in Zhuge et al. 1998).

    Habitat: The specimens were isolated from mushrooms and mosses on a tree trunk at Taeback-si, Gangwon-do.

    World Distribution: Cosmopolitan (Segers 2007) [Updated version of Segers (2007) is available from FADA website].

    Deposition: NIBR (KOSPGR0000276139, KOSPIV00002 19220, KOSPIV0000219221).

    Identifier: Min Ok Song.

    3M acrotrachela nana nana (Bryce, 1912) (Fig. 3) 왜소큰관윤충 (신칭)

    Callidina nanaBryce, 1912, pp. 367-368, Pl. 12, Fig. 2. Macrotrachela nana: Dobers, 1915, p. 80, Fig. 11; Burger, 1948, pp. 125-126, Figs. 11, 12.Fig. 3

    Macrotrachela nana nana: Donner, 1965, p. 162, Figs. 120 a-e.

    Material examined: 3 specimens, Jeongan-myeon, Gongju- si, Chungcheongnam-do (lichens and mosses), Sep. 20, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Corona slightly wider than cingulum pad and slightly higher than upper lip. Upper lip arched and with a bell-shaped median lobe. Sulcus narrow and about a third of pedicel width. Teeth 2/2. Foot with 4 pseudosegments. Spurs conical and with pointed ends; interspace much narrower than spur base width.

    Measurements: Total body length (in creeping) 280 μm. Corona width 36 μm. Collar width (cingulum pad width) 31 μm. Greatest trunk width (in creeping) 47 μm. Spur length 7 μm.

    Remarks: The morphology of the Korean specimens conforms to the original description well in those of upper lip, spurs and dental formula, while they differ from the original specimens in the morphology of corona and foot. The corona of the Korean specimen is wider than cingulum pad, while it is rather narrower than cingulum pad in the original specimen. As for the number of pseudosegments of foot, Bryce described that the original specimen had 3 even though the illustration showed it had four. The foot of the Korean specimens has 4 pseudosegments, and the illustration in Donner (1965) showed 4 pseudosegments as well. In Asia, this species was reported from Taiwan by Ho (2005). The wide distribution of this species suggests that it is presumably cosmopolitan (Segers 2007).

    Habitat: Specimens were isolated from lichens and mosses collected from Jeongan-myeon, Gongju-si, Chungcheongnam- do.

    World Distribution: Probably cosmopolitan.

    Deposition: NIBR (KOSPGR0000276142, KOSPIV00002 19239, KOSPIV0000219240).

    Identifier: Min Ok Song.

    Genus Mniobia Bryce, 1910 흡반윤충속

    4M niobia bredensisDe Koning, 1947 (Fig. 4) 리본장식흡반윤충

    Mniobia bredensisDe Koning, 1947, p. 205, Pl. 9, Fig. 43ae; Donner, 1950, pp. 318-320, Abb. 16; Donner, 1965, pp. 247-248, Fig. 182; Donner, 1970, p. 527, Abb. 9a-b.Fig. 4

    Material examined: 1 specimen, Saryeoni Forest, Jocheoneup, Jeju-si (mushrooms on tree trunk), July 4, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Corona slightly narrower than cingulum pad. Upper lip rather flat; middle part of upper lip swollen like an animal’s head, and with two triangular projections anteriorly. Pharyngeal tube as long as trophi length. Teeth 4/4. Body highly granulated; granulated ridges on rump like a three-lobed leaf.

    Measurements: Total body length (in creeping) 288 μm. Corona width 41 μm. Collar width (cingulum pad width) 44 μm. Greatest trunk width (in feeding) 53 μm. Trophi length 25.5 μm. Spur length 7 μm.

    Remarks: The present species has been reported from New Zealand (Shiel and Green 1996), Turkey (Kaya et al. 2009), Hungary (Schöll and Devetter 2013), The Arctic (Kaya et al. 2010), and Canada (Bateman and Davis 1980) before the present study. This is the first record from Asia.

    Habitat: The specimen was isolated from mushrooms on a tree trunk at Saryeoni Forest, Jocheon-eup, Jeju-si.

    World Distribution: New Zealand, Turkey, Hungary, the Arctic, Canada and Korea.

    Deposition: NIBR (KOSPIV0000206150).

    Identifier: Min Ok Song.

    Order Adinetida Melone & Ricci, 1995 납작머리윤충목 Family Adinetidae Hudson and Gosse, 1886 납작머리윤충과

    Genus Adineta Hudson and Gosse, 1886 납작머리윤충속

    5A dineta cuneataMilne, 1916 (Fig. 5) 가는발목납작머리윤충 (신칭)

    Adineta cuneataMilne, 1916, pp. 179-180, pl. 14, Figs. 22, 22a; Burger, 1948, p. 132; Donner, 1965, p. 273, Figs. 197i-j.Fig. 5

    Material examined: 3 specimens, Gariwang-san, Jeongseon- gun, Gangwon-do (wet mosses), Oct. 25, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Rostrum with a short auricle-like lamella laterally and without sensillae. Rake apparatus with 5 sharp claws. Pseudosegment bearing spurs round and with prominent constriction anteriorly. Spurs short, small, conical, and pointing rather laterally.

    Measurements: Total body length (in creeping) 324 μm. Head width 48 μm. Rostrum width 23 μm. Greatest trunk width (in creeping) 78 μm. Spur length 4.5 μm.

    Remarks: Since this species has been reported only from New Zealand (Shiel and Green 1996), Australia (Shiel and Koste 1985) and North America (Burger 1948) after its description from South Africa by Milne (1916), the present study is the first Asian record of it.

    Habitat: The specimens were isolated from wet mosses collected from Gariwang-san, Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do.

    World Distribution: New Zealand, Australia, North America, South Africa and Korea.

    Deposition: NIBR (KOSPGR0000276144, KOSPIV00002 19243).

    Identifier: Min Ok Song.

    Subclass Monogononta Plate, 1889 단소아강

    Order Ploima Hudson and Gosse, 1886 유영목

    Family Proalidae Harring and Myers, 1924

    Genus Bryceella Remane, 1929 브라이스윤충속 (신칭)

    6B ryceella stylata (Milne, 1886) (Fig. 6) 관절발가락브라이스윤충 (신칭)

    Stephanops stylatusMilne, 1886, pp. 143-145, pl. 2, Figs. 3, 4, 9; Steiner, 1913, pp. 293-294, Figs. 5, 13-15.Fig. 6

    Bryceella stylata: De Smet, 1996, pp. 8-10, Figs. 1-5, pl. 1, Figs. 1-5; Wilts et al., 2009, pp. 161-175, Figs. 1-5.

    Material examined: 3 specimens, Gariwang-san, Jeongseon- gun, Gangwon-do (wet mosses), Oct. 25, 2014.

    Diagnosis: Head distinctly offset by neck-folds. Two long and straight styli on each side of head; with light-refracting bodies at their bases. Modified malleate trophi. Trunk oval, without pseudosegments and ending with a broad and round tail. Toes longer than terminal foot pseudosegment, with three articulating joints, and slightly curved inwardly. Rami with teeth on inner margins.

    Measurements: Total body length 159 μm. Foot length 28 μm. Greatest body width 65 μm. Toe length 21 μm.

    Remarks: This species has been reported from Europe and North America (De Smet 1996) since its description from Scotland by Milne (1886). The present study is the first Asian record of it.

    Habitat: The specimens were isolated from wet mosses collected from Gariwang-san, Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do.

    World Distribution: Europe, North America and Korea.

    Deposition: NIBR (KOSPGR0000276143, KOSPIV00002 19241).

    Identifier: Min Ok Song.

    Figure

    KJEB-33-140_F1.gif

    Macrotrachela insolitaDe Koning, 1947: A, feeding, dorsal view; B, creeping, dorsal view (scale bars: A, B=50 μm).

    KJEB-33-140_F2.gif

    Macrotrachela musculosaMilne, 1886: A, B, feeding, dorsal view (scale bars: A, B=50 μm).

    KJEB-33-140_F3.gif

    Macrotrachela nana nana (Bryce, 1912): A, creeping head and neck, ventral view; B, feeding head and neck, dorsolateral view; C, D, feeding head and neck, dorsal view; E, foot, spurs and toes, ventral view; F, rump, foot and spurs, lateral view (scale bars: A, B, D, F=20 μm; C=50 μm; E=10 μm).

    KJEB-33-140_F4.gif

    Mniobia bredensisDe Koning, 1947: A, B, feeding head and neck, dorsal view; C, rump, foot and spurs, dorsal view; D, feeding, dorsal view (scale bars: A-C=20 μm; D=50 μm).

    KJEB-33-140_F5.gif

    Adineta cuneataMilne, 1916: A, head, neck and trunk, ventral view; B, head and neck, ventral view; C, rump, foot and spurs, ventral view; D, creeping, ventral view (scale bars: A, C, D=50 μm; B=20 μm).

    KJEB-33-140_F6.gif

    Bryceella stylata (Milne, 1886): A, lateral view; B, C, dorsal view; D, foot and toes, lateral view (scale bars: A-C=50 μm; D=20 μm).

    Table

    List of sampling localities

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