Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1226-9999(Print)
ISSN : 2287-7851(Online)
Environmental Biology Research Vol.36 No.3 pp.277-284
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11626/KJEB.2018.36.3.277

Eight Taxa of Newly Recorded Species of Chlorophytes (Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) in Korea

Mi Ran Kim, Jee Hwan Kim1, Do Hyun Kim, Ok Min Lee*
Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Kyonggi University, Suwon 16227, Republic of Korea
1Bioresources Culture Collection Division, Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources, Sangju 37242, Republic of Korea
Corresponding author : Ok Min Lee, Tel. 031-249-9643, Fax. 031-241-0860, E-mail. omlee@kgu.ac.kr
20/08/2018 06/09/2018 06/09/2018

Abstract


In 2017, the freshwater algae were collected from reservoirs, small ponds, soil, and rocks in Korea. Eight taxa of Chlorophyta (Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) have been newly reported in Korea. The unrecorded indigenous species were Chlorolobion braunii, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum, Coelastrum reticulatum var. cubanum, Monoraphidium nanum, Tetrachlorella incerta, Ecdysichlamys obliqua, Gloeotila scopulina, and Stichococcus jenerensis.



초록


    National Institute of Biological Resources
    201701107National Institute of Biological Resources
    201801205the Ministry of Environment

    INTRODUCTION

    Green algae (Chlorophyta) have a greater diversity of cellular organization, morphological structure and reproductive process than any other algae (Bold and Wynne 1978). Green algae including photosynthetic pigment, pyrenoid that stores photosynthetic products, and tissue of chlorophyll that closely related to higher plant (Happy-Wood 1988). The green algae are distinguished by their photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate reserve, chloroplast structure and flagella (Sze 2003).

    Chlorophyta can be classified into 12 classes including Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae, and there are about 6,500 species reported worldwide. There are about 3,700 and 8,500 species reported in classes Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae, respectively (Guiry and Guiry 2018). Domestically, there are 484 and 112 taxa of Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae reported, respectively (Lee and Kim 2015).

    Trebouxiophyceae was first classified by Friedl (1995). He had used molecular analysis to classification of Chlorophytes that overlapped morphologically. As a result, some of the coccoid green algae were forming clade, named Trebouxiophyceae. These algae live usually terrestrial, often symbiotic in lichens, rarely in fresh water (Friedl 1995).

    From this study, the newly recorded species of chlorophytes in Korea were collected and identified from various freshwater lakes, soil, rocks, and land plants in order to expand the recorded species of the Korean flora.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    These samples were collected 8 stations in Korea, from February 2017 to August 2017 (Table 1). Planktonic algae were collected using phytoplankton net that mesh size 25 μm and diameter 30 cm. The periphytic algae was collected by scrubbing off aquatic plants, submerged land plants and rocks (Sournia 1978). The collected specimens were separated using a Pasteur pipette under an inverted microscope in solid media. The unialgal specimens were cultured in Bold’s basal media under the following conditions: a temperature of 25℃, light/dark cycle of 16:8, and 40 μmol m-2 s-1 light (Stein 1973; Bold and Wynne 1978). Each sample was examined using an ×400-1000 magnification under a Zeiss Microscope (Axio Imager A2; Carl Zeiss, Germany) and was photographed using an AxioCam HRC camera (Carl Zeiss, Germany). The taxonomic classification system was based on AlgaeBase (Guiry and Guiry 2018) and Komárek and Fott (1983). The taxa were identified based on information taken from West and West (1908), Prescott (1962) and Hirose et al. (1977).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    The eight newly added Korean species were Chlorolobion braunii, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum, Coelastrum reticulatum var. cubanum, Monoraphidium nanum, Tetrachlorella incerta, Ecdysichlamys obliqua, Gloeotila scopulina, and Stichococcus jenerensis.

    We described the morphological characteristics of the newly recorded species and provided their microscopic photographs (Figs. 1-8).

    • Class Chlorophyceae Wille 1884

    • Order Sphaeropleales Luerssen 1877

    • Family Selenastraceae Blackman & Tansley 1903

    • Genus Chlorolobion Korsikov 1953

    Chlorolobion braunii (Nag.) Kom. 1979 (Fig. 1)

    Cells are spindle shaped, and they are straight and slightly asymmetrical. The young cells are a bit short and pointed. In the adulthood, they are rounded with blunted tips. Chloroplast has one pyrenoid and it is present in the edges besides the incision area which covers the entire cell wall. The length of the cell is 7-12 μm, and the width of cell is 3.2-4 μm.

    Ecology: This species appears freshwater or associate with submerged surfaces in various aquatic habitat (John et al. 2011). We collected this species in planktonic samples from eutrophic reservoirs.

    Distribution: Europe: Britain (John and Tsarenko 2002) Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2018).

    Site of collection: Cheongpyeongho, Gyeonggi-do.

    Date of collection: July 14, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017NR01

    • Class Chlorophyceae Wille 1884

    • Order Sphaeropleales Luerssen 1877

    • Family Scenedesmaceae Oltmanns 1904

    • Genus Coelastrum Nägeli 1849

    Coelastrum pseudomicroporum Kors. 1953 (Fig. 2)

    Coenobia are arranged spherically with 8-32 cells and each cell neighbors with 4-6 connected cells. Cells are eggshaped with thickened poles. Each cell is connected by means of short connecting projections. The length of cell is 5.2-6.4 μm, and the width of cell is 5.2-7.0 μm. The diameter of colony is 35 μm.

    Ecology: This is reported on a few occasions from rivers (John et al. 2011). We collected this species in planktonic samples from eutrophic reservoirs.

    Distribution: Europe: Bulgaria (Hegewald et al. 2010). South America: Brazil (Ramos et al. 2015). Asia: China (Cao et al. 2005)

    Site of collection: Sinpo-ri reservoir, Gangwon-do

    Date of collection: August 22, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017NR04

    • Class Chlorophyceae Wille 1884

    • Order Sphaeropleales Luerssen 1877

    • Family Scenedesmaceae Oltmanns 1904

    • Genus Coelastrum Nägeli 1849

    Coelastrum reticulatum var. cubanum Komárek 1975 (Fig. 3)

    Coenobia are spherical or oval shaped, with 4-32 cells. Cells are spherical or slightly ellipsoidal from the side, slightly flattened, rounded in apex. Cells are spherical or slightly flattened from the side, with rounded apices. Neighboring cells have grown together with 1-(2) narrow, subapical junction shoots, each forming 5-6 extensions. The gap between cells is triangular to irregularly roundish. A walled chloroplast has with a pyrenoid. The length of cell is 8.3 μm, and the width of cell is 8.4 μm. The diameter of colony is 22 μm.

    Ecology: This species lives in planktonic at various water biotopes (Komárek and Fott 1983). We collected this species in planktonic samples from eutrophic reservoirs.

    Distribution: Asia: China (Liu and Hu 2012).

    Site of collection: Geumnam-ri, Garamsusangnejeo, Gyeonggi- do.

    Date of collection: August 22, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017NR05

    • Class Chlorophyceae Wille 1884

    • Order Sphaeropleales Luerssen 1877

    • Family Selenastraceae Blackman & Tansley 1903

    • Genus Monoraphidium Komárková-Legernová 1969

    Monoraphidium nanum (Ettl) Hindák 1980 (Fig. 4)

    The cells are small, short kidney-shaped with broadly rounded cell tips, and have no mucus. The chloroplast is parietal, trough-shaped, without a pyrenoid. The length of cell is 2-5 (5.5) μm and the width is 1.4-2 (2.5) μm.

    Ecology: This is a freshwater and terrestrial species. They live in soil (especially forest soil) and small water biotope (Komárek and Fott 1983). We collected this species in planktonic samples from eutrophic reservoirs.

    Distribution: South America: Brazil (Menezes 2010; Ramos et al. 2012).

    Site of collection: Banmot, Jeju-do.

    Date of collection: May 20, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017NR10

    • Class Trebouxiophyceae Friedl 1995

    • Order Chlorellales Bold & M.J. Wynne 1985

    • Family Oocystaceae Bohlin 1901

    • Genus Tetrachlorella Korsikov 1939

    Tetrachlorella incerta Hindák 1977 (Fig. 5)

    Coenobia are 2 to 4-celled with ellipsoidal to oval shape and rounded at both ends. Two cells are often parallel or at most slightly displaced. Gelatinous envelopes are very fine but sometimes entirely absent. Cell wall is smooth without incrustations. Chloroplast is channel-shaped and pyrenoid is often ambiguous. Asexual reproduction is done by 2 or 4 autospores being released due to fracture of the mother cell wall. The length of cell is 4.5-8 μm and the width is 2-4 μm.

    Ecology: This is a planktonic species in a wide range of water (John et al. 2011). We collected this species in planktonic samples from eutrophic reservoirs.

    Distribution: Europe: Netherlands (Veen et al. 2015), Slovakia (Hindák and Hindáková 2016). Asia: Russia (Medvedeva and Nikulina 2014).

    Site of collection: Susan-ri, Gyeongsangbuk-do.

    Date of collection: May 31, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017IR07

    Class Trebouxiophyceae Friedl 1995

    Order Chlorellales Bold & M.J. Wynne 1985

    Family Oocystaceae Bohlin 1901

    Genus Ecdysichlamys G.S. West 1912

    Ecdysichlamys obliqua G.S. West 1912 (Fig. 6)

    Cells are made of single cell, groups, or small colony. The mother cell wall is attached to the cell. Cells are shaped like wide spindle, elliptic to ovate, and asymmetrical with a more curved side at the poles with papillary thickening. Chloroplast is cell wall-shaped with sometime wavy margin and has a distinct pyrenoid. Cell wall is thick, smooth, colorless, and indistinctly layered. The length of cell is 9-14 μm, and the width of cell is 5-10 μm.

    Ecology: This is a freshwater species. They found surface of soil or periphytic in spring (Komárek and Fott 1983). We collected this species in planktonic samples from eutrophic reservoirs.

    Distribution: Europe: Spain (Uher et al. 2005). Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Comas González 2008, 2009).

    Site of collection: Dongbaekdongsan, Jeju-do.

    Date of collection: May 20, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017NR02

    • Class Trebouxiophyceae Friedl 1995

    • Order Chlorellales Bold & M.J. Wynne 1985

    • Family Chlorellaceae Brunnthaler 1913

    • Genus Gloeotila Kützing 1843

    Gloeotila scopulina (Hazen) Heering 1914 (Fig. 7)

    Filaments are long and bright green. Cells are cylindrical shape and they are not constricted at the diaphragm. Chromatophore is narrow, pale green, without a distinct pyrenoid. This species is distinguished usually by its longer cells, and by its manner of growth in long dense masses of straight filaments. It does not maintain the filamentous state when brought into the laboratory and subsequently breaks down into the coccoid state. The cell width is 3-3.5 μm in diameter and its length is 1-10 times as long.

    Ecology: This species is planktonic or associated with submerged surfaces in various aquatic habitat (John et al. 2011). We collected this species surface soil crust around moss.

    Distribution: Europe: Slovakia (Hindák and Hindáková 2016). Asia: China (Hu and Wei 2006).

    Site of collection: Busong-dong, Jeollabuk-do.

    Date of collection: April 8, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017IA01

    • Class Trebouxiophyceae Friedl 1995

    • Order Prasiolales Schaffner 1922

    • Family Prasiolaceae F.F. Blackman & A.G. Tansley 1902

    • Genus Stichococcus Nägeli 1849

    Stichococcus jenerensis Neustupa, Eliás & Sejnohová 2007 (Fig. 8)

    This species is composed of easily fragmenting unbranched filaments so that the cells are usually solitary or in two-celled filaments. The cells are cylindrical shape and the cell wall is thin, without any thickenings. The cells possess a single parietal chloroplast with a single starch enveloped pyrenoid. The length of cell is 8-11 μm, and the width of cell is 2.7-3.1 μm.

    Ecology: This is a terrestrial species. They live in surface of soil crust on a tree base in a secondary lowland rainforest (Neustupa et al. 2007). We collected this species from surface soil around water fall.

    Distribution: Asia: Malaysia (Nestupa et al. 2007).

    Site of collection: Gugok falls, Gangwon-do.

    Date of collection: February 27, 2017.

    Specimen Locality: ACKU2017NR03

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR 201701107, NIBR 201801205) and the Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources (NNIBR2017287, The project on collection of freshwater algal strains (Year-1), 2017) funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

    Figure

    KJEB-36-277_F1.gif

    Chlorolobion braunii (Nag.) Kom. 1979. Scale bar: 10 μm. A-D: Spindle-shaped cells, A and C: One pyrenoid.

    KJEB-36-277_F2.gif

    Coelastrum pseudomicroporum Kors 1953. Scale bar: 10 μm. A and B: Egg-shaped cells with thickened poles, C and D: Short connecting projections.

    KJEB-36-277_F3.gif

    Coelastrum reticulatum var. cubanum Komárek 1975. Scale bar: 10 μm. A-C: Short cylindrical extension, D: Subapical junction shoots.

    KJEB-36-277_F4.gif

    Monoraphidium nanum (Ettl) Hindák 1980. scale bar: 5 μm. A-D: Small, short kidney-shaped cells with rounded tips.

    KJEB-36-277_F5.gif

    Tetrachlorella incerta Hindák 1977. Scale bar: 10 μm. A-D: Typically, 4-cells with ellipsoidal shape and two frequently parallel cells.

    KJEB-36-277_F6.gif

    Ecdysichlamys obliqua G.S. West 1912. Scale bar: 10 μm. A-C: The poles with papillary thickening, D: Autospore.

    KJEB-36-277_F7.gif

    Gloeotila scopulina (Hazen) Heering 1914. Scale bar: 10 μm. A and B: Cylindrically-shaped cells, C and D: Straight filament.

    KJEB-36-277_F8.gif

    Stichococcus jenerensis Neustupa, Eliás and Sejnohová 2007. Scale bar; A-C: 10 μm, D: 5 μm. A-C: Pyrenoid, D: Neustupa et al. 2007.

    Table

    The locational information about eight sites from where the phytoplankton was collected in 2017

    Reference

    1. BoldHC and MJ Wynne. 1978. Introduction to the Algae - Structure and Reproduction. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey.
    2. CaoX , A Strojsov , P Znachor and E Zapomelová. 2005. Detection of extracellular posphatases in natural spring phytoplankton of a shallow eutrophic lake (Donghu, China) . Eur. J. Phycol.40:251-258.
    3. Comas Gonz lezA. 2008. Algunas características de la Flora de algas y cianoprocariotas de agua dulce de Cuba. ALGAS . Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología39:21-29.
    4. Comas GonzálezA. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulciacuícolas de Cuba. Editorial Universo Sur, Universidad de Cienfuegos.
    5. EttlH. 1977. Taxonomische Bemerkungen zu den Xanthophyceen . Nova Hedwigia28:555-568.
    6. FriedlT. 1995. Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.) . J. Phycol.31:632-639.
    7. GuiryMD and GM Guiry. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway, Available from: http://www.algaebase.org.
    8. Happy-WoodCM . 1988. Ecology of freshwater planktonic green algae. pp. 175-226. In Growth and Reproduction Strategies of Freshwater Phytoplankton (SandgenCD ed.). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
    9. HazenTE . 1902. The Ulothricaceae and Chaetophoraceae of the United States . Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club11:135-250.
    10. HeeringW. 1914. Chlorophyceae III. Ulothrichales, Microsporales, Oedogoniales. pp. 1-250. In Süsswasserflora Deutschlands, Österreich und der Schweiz. (PascherA ed.). Gustav Fischer. Jena.
    11. HegewaldE , M Wolf, A Keller, T Friedl and L Krienitz. 2010. ITS 2 sequence-structure phylogeny in the Scenedesmaceae with special reference to Coelastrum (Chlorophyta,Chlorophyceae). including the new genera Comasiella and Pectinodesmus . Phycologia49:325-335.
    12. HindákF. 1977. Studies on the Chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). I . Biologicke Pr ce23:1-192.
    13. HindakF. 1980. Studies on the Chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae) II. Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Bratislava.
    14. HindákF and A Hind kov . 2016. Algae. In Zoznam ni ch a vy ch rastl n Slovenska (on-line list).
    15. HiroseH , M Akiyama, M Hirano, K Imahori, T Ioriya, H Kasaki, H Kobayasi, S Kumano, E Takahashi, K Tsumura and T Yamagishi. 1977. Illustrations of the Japanese Fresh-water Algae. Uchidarokakuhe. Tokyo.
    16. HuH and Y Wei. 2006. The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. China. www.sciencep.com.
    17. JohnDM , BA Whitton and AJ Brook. 2011. The Freshwater Algal Flora of The British Isles. An Identification Guide to Freshwater and Terrestrial Algae. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    18. JohnDM and PM Tsarenko. 2002. Order Chlorococcales. pp. 329-409. In The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles (JohnDM et al. eds.). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
    19. KomárekJ. 1975. New coenobial Chlorococcales algae of Cuba . Preslia (Prague)47:275-279.
    20. KomárekJ. 1979. nderungen in der Taxonomie der Chlorokokkalalgen . Archiv f r Hydrobiologie24:239-263.
    21. KomárekJ and B Fott. 1983. Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers. Schweiz Verg. Stuttgart.
    22. Komárková-LegnerováJ. 1969. The Systematics and Ontogenesis of the genera Ankistrodesmus Corda and Monoraphidium gen. nov. pp. 75-144. In Studies in Phycology (FottB et al. eds.). Schweiz Verg. Stuttgart.
    23. KorshikovAA . 1939 Contribution to the algal flora of the Gorky District Phytoplankton of the Oka River in August 1932 . Zapiski Gorkovskogo Universiteta9:101-128.
    24. KorshikovAA . 1953. The Freshwater Algae of the Ukrainian SSR. V. Sub-Class Protococcineae. Vacuolales and Protococcales. Kyjv Akad. NAUK URSR.
    25. K tzingFT . 1843. Phycologia generalis oder Anatomie, Physiologie und Systemkunde der Tange. F.A. Brockhaus. Leipzig.
    26. LeeOK and JH Kim. 2015. National List of Species of Korea (Green algae). Jeonghaeng Publ. Co.Seoul.
    27. LiuG and Z Hu. 2012. Flora Algarum Sinicarum Aquae dulcis Tomus XV Chlorophyta Chlorooccales (II) Tetrasporales Dichotomosiphonales Cladophorales. Science Press. Beijing.
    28. MedvedevaLA and TV Nikulina. 2014. Catalogue of Freshwater Algae of the Southern part of the Russian Far East. Dalnauka, Vladivostok.
    29. MenezesM. 2010. Chlorophyceae. pp. 335-352. In Cat logo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil (ForzzaRC et al. eds.). Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Bot nico do Rio de Janeiro.
    30. NägeliC. 1849. Gattungen einzelliger Algen, physiologisch und systematisch bearbeitet. Neue Denkschriften der Allg . Schweizerischen Gesellschaft f r die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften10:1-139.
    31. NeustupaJ , M Eliás and L Sejnohová. 2007. A taxonomic study of two Stichococcus species (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) with a starch-enveloped pyrenoid . Nova Hedwigia84:51-63.
    32. PrescottGW . 1962. Algae of the Western Great Lakes area. W.M.C. Brown Co. Inc.Iowa.
    33. RamosGJP , CEM Bicudo, A Góes-Neto and CW Moura. 2012. Monoraphidium and Ankistrodesmus (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) from Pantanal dos Marimbus . Chapada Diamantina39:421-434.
    34. RamosGJP , CEM Bicudo and CW Moura. 2015. Scenedesmaceae (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) de duas áreas do Pantanal dos Marimbus (Baiano e Remanso), Chapada Diamantina, Estado da Bahia, Brasil . Hoehnea42:549-566.
    35. ShaoKT . 2018. TaiBNET (Catalogue of Life in Taiwan). http://taibnet.sinica.edu.tw.
    36. SourniaA. 1978. Phytoplankton Manual. UNESCO, Paris. Stein JR. 1973. Handbook of Phycological Methods. Culture Methods and Growth Measurements. Cambridge University Press. USA.
    37. SzeP. 2003. A Biology of the Algae 2nd. Ed. WCB. Published. IA.
    38. UherB , M Aboal and L Kovacik. 2005. Epilithic and chasmoendolithic phycoflora of monuments and buildings in South-Eastern Spain . Cryptogamie. Algologie26:275-308.
    39. VeenA , CHJ Hof, FAC Kouwets and T Berkhout. 2015. Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst. Informatiehuis Water. Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN).
    40. WestGS . 1912. Algological notes. V-IX . J. Bot. London50:79-89.
    41. WestW and GS West. 1908. A Monograph of the British Desmidiaceae. Vol. 3. Ray Society. London.